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Scientists are now certain that the 313 mile diameter moon of Saturn, Enceladus, has a liquid water ocean that completely envelops its rocky core. Beneath 18 miles of ice crust, the ocean was originally thought to just be a blob of liquid located near the south pole where scientists have photographed jets of water vapor spewing into space. Wobble in the planet’s motion confirms presence of a full ocean of water surrounding the core. Liquid state is probably due to tidal forces between Saturn and other moons.

Anniversaries:
Sunday October 1st is the 58th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, the first ever man-made satellite. From this event – NASA was created by act of congress and the president 57 years ago this Thursday.

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