Scientists are now certain that the 313 mile diameter moon of Saturn, Enceladus, has a liquid water ocean that completely envelops its rocky core. Beneath 18 miles of ice crust, the ocean was originally thought to just be a blob of liquid located near the south pole where scientists have photographed jets of water vapor spewing into space. Wobble in the planet’s motion confirms presence of a full ocean of water surrounding the core. Liquid state is probably due to tidal forces between Saturn and other moons.
Sunday October 1st is the 58th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, the first ever man-made satellite. From this event – NASA was created by act of congress and the president 57 years ago this Thursday.